Ocular and Visual Implications of Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis
Neuro degenerative diseases such as Parkinsonian conditions (Parkinsons, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy), Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis commonly have significant ocular health and visual effects. Optometrists should be aware of these possible conditions, for instance severe dry eye and convergence weakness in Parkinson's disease, and have confidence in examination to detect these issues, and to manage them effectively to maximise patients' quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living. These conditions can commonly cause difficulties for an optometrist in comprehensively examining a patient, for instance due to medication effects on attention, and it is useful to have practical options to make the examination as productive as possible. Evolving research is demonstrating the validity and importance of optometric technology, particularly optical coherence tomography, in comprehensive assessment of patients with these conditions, especially as measures of subtle disease progression, as well as effects on visual function.